Australien Kontinent Hausarbeit, 2005
Australien als Kontinent umfasst eine Hauptlandmasse, das australische Festland, und die vorgelagerten Inseln Tasmanien und Neuguinea. Häufig wird der Kontinent Australien auch zusammen mit den im Pazifik gelegenen Inselstaaten, insbesondere aus. Diese erweiterte Region wird als Australien und Ozeanien bezeichnet. Die Hauptlandmasse wurde vormals auch Neuholland genannt, der Kontinent wird (aus. Australien (amtlicher deutscher Name; englisch Commonwealth of Australia, deutsch veraltet Australischer Bund) ist ein Staat auf der Südhalbkugel der Erde, der die gesamte Landmasse des australischen Kontinents, die ihr südlich Lage Australien und Ozeaniens. Politische Gliederung von Australien und Ozeanien. Diese erweiterte Region wird aus kulturellen Gründen als Kontinent Ozeanien bezeichnet. Die Hauptlandmasse wurde vormals auch Neuholland genannt, der. Der geologische Bau Australiens ist einfach, denn er umfasst nur drei Großräume: das Westaustralische Tafelland, die Mittelaustralische Senke und das.
Diese erweiterte Region wird als Australien und Ozeanien bezeichnet. Die Hauptlandmasse wurde vormals auch Neuholland genannt, der Kontinent wird (aus. und die im Pazifik gelegenen Inselstaaten werden auch zum Kontinent Australien gezählt, allerdings wird die Gesamtregion als kultureller Kontinent Ozeanien. Die meisten Menschen verbinden mit Australien ein spezielles Bild wie das Opernhaus von Sydney oder den Ayers Rock. Dem wahren Reichtum Australiens an. März englisch. Einrichtungen: Das Hotel überzeugt durch seine moderne Ausstattung mit Olympia Heute und durch seine geschmackvolle Farbgestaltung. Die farbenprächtige australische Vogelwelt ist einmalig. Heute machen Sie das Aragorn Klassische Ensembles mit internationalem Ansehen sind Film Sun Stroke Symphonieorchester Sydneys, Melbournes und Tasmaniens sowie das Australische Jugendorchester und das Australische Kammerorchester. Die australische Geburtenrate beträgt 1,8 Click pro Frau. Für Reiseteilnehmer mit anderer Nationalität gelten möglicherweise andere Einreisebestimmungen. The Battle of Buna—Gonabetween November and Januaryset the tone for the bitter final stages of the New Guinea campaignwhich persisted into Archived from the original PDF on 18 On The Beat Goes Retrieved 10 February Australien Kontinent Die ersten menschlichen Gemeinschaften besiedelten vermutlich die Küste. Fale com a Editora! But it would still be one of the biggest shocks in World Cup history if Papua New Guinea — the only country Tv Hd Serien have Rugby League as its national Sport — were to qualify for the last 4. Nutztiere wie Schafe und Rinder machen den einheimischen Tieren den Lebensraum streitig, da für Humor Google Plus Ernährung besonders in den steppen- und wüstenartigen Gebieten riesige Flächen benötigt werden. Zum Inneren der Landmasse hin ist der Kontinent von semiaridem und aridem Klima geprägt. Diese Gruppen bilden jedoch keine einheitlichen Kulturen, sondern bilden eine Vielzahl von sprachlich und kulturell abgrenzbaren Einheiten.
Australien Kontinent VideoGiftigster Kontinent - Australien - Galileo - ProSieben
Kattedyret rovdyr som jaguar. Istid er ikke kun af det onde. Derfor er jorden utroligt fattig. For mennesker med sart hud er det ultra violette lys skadeligt.
Man ser ikke folk solbade i Australien. Hvert Men regnfald hvert Den Vinen endte oftest som hedvin. Navnet var James Busby. Navne som stadig eksisterer og som mange nok vil kunne nikke genkendende til.
I midten af tallet startede den store guldfeber i Australien. Folk troede de skulle til Australien og finde rigdom og lykke. Af ubeskriveligt stor betydning for australsk vindyrkning blev dog et firma, stiftet i i Magill, der i dag er blevet en del af Adelaide.
Legends of Terra Australis Incognita—an "unknown land of the South"—date back to Roman times and before, and were commonplace in medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of the continent.
The theory of balancing land has been documented as early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius , who uses the term Australis on his maps.
Terra Australis , a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity , appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries.
At its largest, the continent included Tierra del Fuego , separated from South America by a small strait; New Guinea ; and what would come to be called Australia.
When Europeans first arrived, inhabitants of New Guinea and nearby islands, whose technologies included bone, wood, and stone tools, had a productive agricultural system.
The first known Europeans to sight New Guinea were probably the Portuguese and Spanish navigators sailing in the South Pacific in the early part of the 16th century.
It is here that James Cook made first contact with an Aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal , who he fired upon, injuring one. Phillip described Sydney Cove as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".
In , the Colony of Queensland tried to annex the southern half of eastern New Guinea, but the British government did not approve.
From that point a system of federalism in Australia came into operation, entailing the establishment of an entirely new national government the Commonwealth government and an ongoing division of powers between that government and the States.
With the encouragement of Queensland, in , a British protectorate had been proclaimed over the southern coast of New Guinea and its adjacent islands.
British New Guinea was annexed outright in The possession was placed under the authority of the newly federated Commonwealth of Australia in and with passage of the Papua Act of , British New Guinea became the Australian Territory of Papua , with formal Australian administration beginning in The bombing of Darwin on 19 February was the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
The Battle of Buna—Gona , between November and January , set the tone for the bitter final stages of the New Guinea campaign , which persisted into The offensives in Papua and New Guinea of —44 were the single largest series of connected operations ever mounted by the Australian armed forces.
Following the commencement of reforms across Indonesia , Papua and other Indonesian provinces received greater regional autonomy. In , "Special Autonomy" status was granted to Papua province, although to date, implementation has been partial and often criticized.
Elections in resulted in the formation of a ministry headed by Chief Minister Michael Somare , who pledged to lead the country to self-government and then to independence.
Papua New Guinea became self-governing on 1 December and achieved independence on 16 September Migration brought large numbers of southern and central Europeans to Australia for the first time.
A government leaflet assured readers that unskilled non-British migrants were needed for "labour on rugged projects Trade with Asia increased and a post-war immigration program received more than 6.
Supported by immigration of people from more than countries since the end of World War II, the population increased to more than 23 million by With a total land area of 8.
As the country of Australia is mostly on a single landmass, and comprises most of the continent, it is sometimes informally referred to as an island continent, surrounded by oceans.
Geological forces such as tectonic uplift of mountain ranges or clashes between tectonic plates occurred mainly in Australia's early history, when it was still a part of Gondwana.
Australia is situated in the middle of the tectonic plate, and therefore currently has no active volcanism. The continent primarily sits on the Indo-Australian Plate.
Because of its central location on its tectonic plate Australia doesn't have any active volcanic regions, the only continent with this distinction.
For most of the time since then, Australia—New Guinea remained a continuous landmass. When the last glacial period ended in about 10, BC, rising sea levels formed Bass Strait , separating Tasmania from the mainland.
Then between about 8, and 6, BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the Aru Islands , and the Australian mainland.
The Outer Banda Arc was accreted along the northwestern edge the continent; it includes the islands of Timor , Tanimbar , and Seram.
Volcanic eruptions are not rare, and the area is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis because of this. For about 40 million years Australia—New Guinea was almost completely isolated.
During this time, the continent experienced numerous changes in climate, but the overall trend was towards greater aridity.
When South America eventually separated from Antarctica, the development of the cold Antarctic Circumpolar Current changed weather patterns across the world.
For Australia—New Guinea, it brought a marked intensification of the drying trend. The great inland seas and lakes dried out.
Much of the long-established broad-leaf deciduous forest began to give way to the distinctive hard-leaved sclerophyllous plants that characterise the modern Australian landscape.
Prominent features of the Australian flora are adaptations to aridity and fire which include scleromorphy and serotiny.
These adaptations are common in species from the large and well-known families Proteaceae Banksia , Myrtaceae Eucalyptus or gum trees, Melaleucas and Callistemons , Fabaceae Acacia s or wattles and Casuarina or she-oaks and Grevilleas , which are typically found in the Australian mainland.
The flora of New Guinea is a mixture of many tropical rainforest species with origins in Asia, such as Castanopsis acuminatissima , Lithocarpus spp.
For many species, the primary refuge was the relatively cool and well-watered Great Dividing Range. Even today, pockets of remnant vegetation remain in the cool uplands, some species not much changed from the Gondwanan forms of 60 or 90 million years ago.
Eventually, the Australia—New Guinea tectonic plate collided with the Eurasian plate to the north.
The collision caused the northern part of the continent to buckle upwards, forming the high and rugged mountains of New Guinea and, by reverse downwards buckling, the Torres Strait that now separates the two main landmasses.
The collision also pushed up the islands of Wallacea , which served as island 'stepping-stones' that allowed plants from Southeast Asia 's rainforests to colonise New Guinea, and some plants from Australia—New Guinea to move into Southeast Asia.
The ocean straits between the islands were narrow enough to allow plant dispersal, but served as an effective barrier to exchange of land mammals between Australia—New Guinea and Asia.
Among the fungi, the remarkable association between Cyttaria gunnii one of the "golf-ball" fungi and its associated trees in the genus Nothofagus is evidence of that drift: the only other places where this association is known are New Zealand and southern Argentina and Chile.
Due to the spread of animals, fungi and plants across the single Pleistocene landmass the separate lands have a related biota.
These include the grey-banded munia , Vogelkop bowerbird , and the king bird-of-paradise. As the continent drifted north from Antarctica, a unique fauna , flora and mycobiota developed.
Marsupials and monotremes also existed on other continents, but only in Australia—New Guinea did they out-compete the placental mammals and come to dominate.
New Guinea has a rich diversity of coral life and 1, species of fish have been found. Also about species of reef-building coral—the latter equal to 75 percent of the world's known total.
New Guinea has species of breeding birds, of which species are endemic. Bird life also flourished — in particular, the songbirds order Passeriformes , suborder Passeri are thought to have evolved 50 million years ago in the part of Gondwana that later became Australia , New Zealand, New Guinea , and Antarctica , before radiating into a great number of different forms and then spreading around the globe.
Animal groups such as macropods , monotremes , and cassowaries are endemic to Australia. There were three main reasons for the enormous diversity that developed in animal, fungal and plant life.
Although New Guinea is the most northerly part of the continent, and could be expected to be the most tropical in climate, the altitude of the New Guinea highlands is such that a great many animals and plants that were once common across Australia—New Guinea now survive only in the tropical highlands where they are severely threatened by overpopulation pressures.
In New Guinea, the climate is mostly monsoonal December to March , southeast monsoon May to October , and tropical rainforest with slight seasonal temperature variation.
The New Guinea Highlands are one of the few regions close to the equator that experience snowfall , which occurs in the most elevated parts of the mainland.
The Australian landmass's climate is mostly desert or semi-arid , with the southern coastal corners having a temperate climate, such as oceanic and humid subtropical climate in the east coast and Mediterranean climate in the west.
The northern parts of the country have a tropical climate. Nonetheless, minimum temperatures are moderated.
Australia is one of the continents most affected and experiences extensive droughts alongside considerable wet periods.
Simpson desert in Northern Territory. Monsoonal squall in Darwin. Snow in Thredbo , a town in the Snowy Mountains.
Grassland in Queensland with mountains in background. Christianity is the predominant religion in the continent, although large proportions of Australians belong to no religion.
Traditional religions are often animist , found in New Guinea. Islam is prevalent in the Indonesian New Guinea.
Immigration to Australia have brought overseas languages such as Italian , Greek , Arabic , Filipino , Mandarin , Vietnamese and Spanish , among others.
Since , more than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia a multicultural country.
Australia is the only first world country in the Australian-New Guinea continent, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world.
Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living ,  making it one of the most livable cities.
Papua New Guinea is rich in natural resources, which account for two-thirds of their export earnings.
Though PNG is filled with resources, the lack of country's development led foreign countries to take over few sites and continued foreign demand for PNG's resources and as a result, the United States constructed an oil company and began to export in and this was the largest project in PNG's history.
Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy  with Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australia , a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms.
The Queen is represented in Australia by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers.
Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm. As such, Queen Elizabeth II is its sovereign and head of state. The constitutional convention, which prepared the draft constitution, and Australia, the outgoing metropolitan power, had thought that Papua New Guinea would not remain a monarchy.
The founders, however, considered that imperial honours had a cachet. Papua New Guinea along with the Solomon Islands is unusual among Commonwealth realms in that governors-general are elected by the legislature, rather than chosen by the executive branch.
Since , the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture , with some Indigenous influences. It is estimated that more than different cultural groups exist in Papua New Guinea, and most groups have their own language.
Because of this diversity, in which they take pride, many different styles of cultural expression have emerged; each group has created its own expressive forms in art , performance art , weaponry , costumes and architecture.
Papua New Guinea is one of the few cultures in Oceania to practice the tradition of bride price. Australia has a tradition of Aboriginal art which is thousands of years old, the best known forms being rock art and bark painting.
Evidence of Aboriginal art in Australia can be traced back at least 30, years. Reverence for the land and oral traditions are emphasized.
Popular sports in Papua New Guinea include various codes of football rugby league , rugby union , soccer , and Australian rules football , cricket , volleyball , softball , netball , and basketball.
Other Olympic sports are also gaining popularity, such as boxing and weightlifting. Rugby league is the most popular sport in Papua New Guinea especially in the highlands , which also unofficially holds the title as the national sport.
Australia has hosted two Summer Olympics: Melbourne and Sydney North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the continent. For the country, see Australia. For other uses, see Australia disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Australasia. See also: Flora of Australia and Fungi of Australia. Main article: Climate of Australia.
Ice cap at top of Puncak Jaya in Papua A tropical rainforest in Papua New Guinea. Spring in the apple orchards of Tasmania.
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